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Preamble
We the Peoples of the United Nations Determined
to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime
has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and

to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human
person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and

to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising
from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and

to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

And for these Ends

to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good
neighbors, and

to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and

to ensure by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that
armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and

to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social
advancement of all peoples,

Have Resolved to Combine our Efforts to Accomplish these Aims

Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in
the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good
and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do
hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.


CHAPTER I
PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES
Article 1
The Purposes of the United Nations are:
1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective
collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for
the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring
about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and
international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations
which might lead to a breach of the peace;

2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of
equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate
measures to strengthen universal peace;

3. To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an
economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and
encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without
distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and

4. To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these
common ends.


Article 2
The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1,
shall act in accordance with the following Principles.
1. The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its
Members.

2. All Members, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting
from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them in
accordance with the present Charter.

3. All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a
manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.

4. All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of
force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in
any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.

5. All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes
in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to
any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement
action.

6. The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United
Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the
maintenance of international peace and security.

7. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to
intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any
state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the
present Charter; but this principle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement
measures under Chapter VII.


CHAPTER II
MEMBERSHIP
Article 3
The original Members of the United Nations shall be the states which, having
participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San
Francisco, or having previously signed the Declaration by United Nations of January
1, 1942, sign the present Charter and ratify it in accordance with Article 110.

Article 4
1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which
accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the
Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.
2. The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be
effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the
Security Council.


Article 5
A member of the United Nations against which preventive or enforcement action
has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the
rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly upon the
recommendation of the Security Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges
may be restored by the Security Council.

Article 6
A Member of the United Nations which has persistently violated the Principles
contained in the present Charter may be expelled from the Organization by the
General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

CHAPTER III
ORGANS
Article 7
1. There are established as the principal organs of the United Nations: a General
Assembly, a Security Council, an Economic and Social Council, a Trusteeship
Council, an International Court of Justice, and a Secretariat.
2. Such subsidiary organs as may be found necessary may be established in
accordance with the present Charter.


Article 8
The United Nations shall place no restrictions on the eligibility of men and women to
participate in any capacity and under conditions of equality in its principal and
subsidiary organs.

CHAPTER IV
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
Composition
Article 9
1. The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members of the United Nations.
2. Each member shall have not more than five representatives in the General
Assembly.


Functions and Powers
Article 10
The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope
of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs
provided for in the present Charter, and, except as provided in Article 12, may
make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security
Council or to both on any such questions or matters.

Article 11
1. The General Assembly may consider the general principles of cooperation in the
maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing
disarmament and the regulation of armaments, and may make recommendations
with regard to such principles to the Members or to the Security Council or to both.
2. The General Assembly may discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of
international peace and security brought before it by any Member of the United
Nations, or by the Security Council, or by a state which is not a Member of the
United Nations in accordance with Article 35, paragraph 2, and, except as provided
in Article 12, may make recommendations with regard to any such questions to the
state or states concerned or to the Security Council or to both. Any such question
on which action is necessary shall be referred to the Security Council by the General
Assembly either before or after discussion.

3. The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations
which are likely to endanger international peace and security.

4. The powers of the General Assembly set forth in this Article shall not limit the
general scope of Article 10.


Article 12
1. While the Security Council is exercising in respect of any dispute or situation the
functions assigned to it in the present Charter, the General Assembly shall not
make any recommendation with regard to that dispute or situation unless the
Security Council so requests.
2. The Secretary-General, with the consent of the Security Council, shall notify the
General Assembly at each session of any matters relative to the maintenance of
international peace and security which are being dealt with by the Security Council
and shall similarly notify the General Assembly, or the Members of the United
Nations if the General Assembly is not in session, immediately the Security Council
ceases to deal with such matters.


Article 13
1. The General Assembly shall initiate studies and make recommendations for the
purpose of:
a. promoting international cooperation in the political field and encouraging the
progressive development of international law and its codification;

b. promoting international cooperation in the economic, social, cultural,
educational, and health fields, and assisting in the realization of human rights and
fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or
religion.

2. The further responsibilities, functions and powers of the General Assembly with
respect to matters mentioned in paragraph 1(b) above are set forth in Chapters IX
and X.


Article 14
Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the General Assembly may recommend
measures for the peaceful adjustment of any situation, regardless of origin, which it
deems likely to impair the general welfare or friendly relations among nations,
including situations resulting from a violation of the provisions of the present
Charter setting forth the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.

Article 15
1. The General Assembly shall receive and consider annual and special reports from
the Security Council; these reports shall include an account of the measures that
the Security Council has decided upon or taken to maintain international peace and
security.
2. The General Assembly shall receive and consider reports from the other organs of
the United Nations.


Article 16
The General Assembly shall perform such functions with respect to the international
trusteeship system as are assigned to it under Chapters XII and XIII, including the
approval of the trusteeship agreements for areas not designated as strategic.

Article 17
1. The General Assembly shall consider and approve the budget of the Organization.
2. The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by the Members as apportioned
by the General Assembly.

3. The General Assembly shall consider and approve any financial and budgetary
arrangements with specialized agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine
the administrative budgets of such specialized agencies with a view to making
recommendations to the agencies concerned.


Voting
Article 18
1. Each member of the General Assembly shall have one vote.
2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a
two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. These questions shall
include: recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace
and security, the election of the non-permanent members of the Security Council,
the election of the members of the Economic and Social Council, the election of
members of the Trusteeship Council in accordance with paragraph 1(c) of Article
86, the admission of new Members to the United Nations, the suspension of the
rights and privileges of membership, the expulsion of Members, questions relating
to the operation of the trusteeship system, and budgetary questions.

3. Decisions on other questions, Composition including the determination of
additional categories of questions to be decided by a two-thirds majority, shall be
made by a majority of the members present and voting.


Article 19
A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears in the payment of its financial
contributions to the Organization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if the
amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it
for the preceding two full years. The General Assembly may, nevertheless, permit
such a Member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions
beyond the control of the Member.

Procedure
Article 20
The General Assembly shall meet in regular annual sessions and in such special
sessions as occasion may require. Special sessions shall be convoked by the
Secretary-General at the request of the Security Council or of a majority of the
Members of the United Nations.

Article 21
The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure. It shall elect its
President for each session.

Article 22
The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary
for the performance of its functions.

CHAPTER V
THE SECURITY COUNCIL
Article 23
1. The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members of the United Nations. The
Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America
shall be permanent members of the Security Council. The General Assembly shall
elect ten other Members of the United Nations to be non-permanent members of
the Security Council, due regard being specially paid, in the first instance to the
contribution of Members of the United Nations to the maintenance of international
peace and security and to the other purposes of the Organization, and also to
equitable geographical distribution.
2. The non-permanent members of the Security Council shall be elected for a term
of two years. In the first election of the non-permanent members after the increase
of the membership of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen, two of the four
additional members shall be chosen for a term of one year. A retiring member shall
not be eligible for immediate re-election.

3. Each member of the Security Council shall have one representative.


Functions and Powers
Article 24
1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its
Members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance
of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under
this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf.
2. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act in accordance with the
Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The specific powers granted to the
Security Council for the discharge of these duties are laid down in Chapters VI, VII,
VIII, and XII.

3. The Security Council shall submit annual and, when necessary, special reports to
the General Assembly for its consideration.


Article 25
The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of
the Security Council in accordance with the present Charter.

Article 26
In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and
security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic
resources, the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating, with the
assistance of the Military Staff Committee referred to in Article 47, plans to be
submitted to the Members of the United Nations for the establishment of a system
for the regulation of armaments.

Voting
Article 27
1. Each member of the Security Council shall have one vote.
2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an
affirmative vote of nine members.

3. Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters shall be made by an
affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent
members; provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph 3 of
Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting.


Procedure
Article 28
1. The Security Council shall be so organized as to be able to function continuously.
Each member of the Security Council shall for this purpose be represented at all
times at the seat of the Organization.
2. The Security Council shall hold periodic meetings at which each of its members
may, if it so desires, be represented by a member of the government or by some
other specially designated representative.

3. The Security Council may hold meetings at such places other than the seat of the
Organization as in its judgment will best facilitate its work.


Article 29
The Security Council may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary
for the performance of its functions.

Article 30
The Security Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of
selecting its President.

Article 31
Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council
may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the
Security Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that Member
are specially affected.

Article 32
Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council or
any state which is not a Member of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute
under consideration by the Security Council, shall be invited to participate, without
vote, in the discussion relating to the dispute. The Security Council shall lay down
such conditions as it deems just for the participation of a state which is not a
Member of the United Nations.

CHAPTER VI
PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES
Article 33
1. The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the
maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution
by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement,
resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own
choice.
2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to
settle their dispute by such means.


Article 34
The Security Council may investigate any dispute, or any situation which might lead
to international friction or give rise to a dispute, in order to determine whether the
continuance of the dispute or situation is likely to endanger the maintenance of
international peace and security.

Article 35
1. Any Member of the United Nations may bring any dispute, or any situation of the
nature referred to in Article 34, to the attention of the Security Council or of the
General Assembly.
2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations may bring to the attention of
the Security Council or of the General Assembly any dispute to which it is a party if
it accepts in advance, for the purposes of the dispute, the obligations of pacific
settlement provided in the present Charter.

3. The proceedings of the General Assembly in respect of matters brought to its
attention under this Article will be subject to the provisions of Articles 11 and 12.


Article 36
1. The Security Council may, at any stage of a dispute of the nature referred to in
Article 33 or of a situation of like nature, recommend appropriate procedures or
methods of adjustment.
2. The Security Council should take into consideration any procedures for the
settlement of the dispute which have already been adopted by the parties.

3. In making recommendations under this Article the Security Council should also
take into consideration that legal disputes should as a general rule be referred by
the parties to the International Court of Justice in accordance with the provisions of
the Statute of the Court.


Article 37
1. Should the parties to a dispute of the nature referred to in Article 33 fail to settle
it by the means indicated in that Article, they shall refer it to the Security Council.
2. If the Security Council deems that the continuance of the dispute is in fact likely
to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, it shall decide
whether to take action under Article 36 or to recommend such terms of settlement
as it may consider appropriate.


Article 38
Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37, the Security Council may, if
all the parties to any dispute so request, make recommendations to the parties
with a view to a pacific settlement of the dispute.

CHAPTER VII
ACTION WITH RESPECT TO THREATS TO THE PEACE, BREACHES OF THE PEACE, AND
ACTS OF AGGRESSION
Article 39
The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace,
breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or
decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to
maintain or restore international peace and security.

Article 40
In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the Security Council may,
before making the recommendations or deciding upon the measures provided for in
Article 39, call upon the parties concerned to comply with such provisional
measures as it deems necessary or desirable. Such provisional measures shall be
without prejudice to the rights, claims, or position of the parties concerned. The
Security Council shall duly take account of failure to comply with such provisional
measures.

Article 41
The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed
force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the
Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include
complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal,
telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of
diplomatic relations.

Article 42
Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would
be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea,
or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and
security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations
by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations.

Article 43
1. All Members of the United Nations, in order to contribute to the maintenance of
international peace and security, undertake to make available to the Security
Council, on its call and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements,
armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of passage, necessary for
the purpose of maintaining international peace and security.
2. Such agreement or agreements shall govern the numbers and types of forces.
their degree of readiness and general location, and the nature of the facilities and
assistance to be provided.

3. The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as soon as possible on the
initiative of the Security Council. They shall be concluded between the Security
Council and Members or between the Security Council and groups of Members and
shall be subject to ratification by the signatory states in accordance with their
respective constitutional processes.


Article 44
When the Security Council has decided to use force it shall, before calling upon a
Member not represented on it to provide armed forces in fulfillment of the
obligations assumed under Article 43, invite that Member, if the Member so desires,
to participate in the decisions of the Security Council concerning the employment of
contingents of that Member's armed forces.

Article 45
In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent military measures Members
shall hold immediately available national air-force contingents for combined
international enforcement action. The strength and degree of readiness of these
contingents and plans for their combined action shall be determined, within the
limits laid down in the special agreement or agreements referred to in Article 43, by
the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee.

Article 46
Plans for the application of armed force shall be made by the Security Council with
the assistance of the Military Staff Committee.

Article 47
1. There shall be established a Military Staff Committee to advise and assist the
Security Council on all questions relating to the Security Council's military
requirements for the maintenance of international peace and security, the
employment and command of forces placed at its disposal, the regulation of
armaments, and possible disarmament.
2. The Military Staff Committee shall consist of the Chiefs of Staff of the permanent
members of the Security Council or their representatives. Any Member of the United
Nations not permanently represented on the Committee shall be invited by the
Committee to be associated with it when the efficient discharge of the Committee's
responsibilities requires the participation of that Member in its work.

3. The Military Staff Committee shall be responsible under the Security Council for
the strategic direction of any armed forces placed at the disposal of the Security
Council. Questions relating to the command of such forces shall be worked out
subsequently.

4. The Military Staff Committee, with the authorization of the Security Council and
after consultation with appropriate regional agencies, may establish regional
subcommittees.


Article 48
1. The action required to carry out the decisions of the Security Council for the
maintenance of international peace and security shall be taken by all the Members
of the United Nations or by some of them, as the Security Council may determine.
2. Such decisions shall be carried out by the Members of the United Nations directly
and through their action in the appropriate international agencies of which they are
members.


Article 49
The Members of the United Nations shall join in affording mutual assistance in
carrying out the measures decided upon by the Security Council.

Article 50
If preventive or enforcement measures against any state are taken by the Security
Council, any other state, whether a Member of the United Nations or not, which
finds itself confronted with special economic problems arising from the carrying out
of those measures shall have the right to consult the Security Council with regard to
a solution of those problems.

Article 51
Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or
collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United
Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain
international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of
this right of self-defense shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and
shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council
under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in
order to maintain or restore international peace and security.

CHAPTER VIII
REGIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
Article 52
1. Nothing in the present Charter precludes the existence of regional arrangements
or agencies for dealing with such matters relating to the maintenance of
international peace and security as are appropriate for regional action, provided
that such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent with the
Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.
2. The Members of the United Nations entering into such arrangements or
constituting such agencies shall make every effort to achieve pacific settlement of
local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies
before referring them to the Security Council.

3. The Security Council shall encourage the development of pacific settlement of
local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies
either on the initiative of the states concerned or by reference from the Security
Council.

4. This Article in no way impairs the application of Articles 34 and 35.


Article 53
1. The Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize such regional arrangements
or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. But no enforcement action
shall be taken under regional arrangements or by regional agencies without the
authorization of the Security Council, with the exception of measures against any
enemy state, as defined in paragraph 2 of this Article, provided for pursuant to
Article 107 or in regional arrangements directed against renewal of aggressive
policy on the part of any such state, until such time as the Organization may, on
request of the Governments concerned, be charged with the responsibility for
preventing further aggression by such a state.
2. The term enemy state as used in paragraph 1 of this Article applies to any state
which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory of the
present Charter.


Article 54
The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully informed of activities undertaken
or in contemplation under regional arrangements or by regional agencies for the
maintenance of international peace and security.

CHAPTER IX
INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CO-OPERATION
Article 55
With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being which are
necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for
the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the United Nations
shall promote:
a. higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and
social progress and development;

b. solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; and
international cultural and educational co-operation; and

c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental
freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.


Article 56
All Members pledge themselves to take joint and separate action in cooperation
with the Organization for the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article 55.

Article 57
1. The various specialized agencies, established by intergovernmental agreement
and having wide international responsibilities, as defined in their basic instruments,
in economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related fields, shall be
brought into relationship with the United Nations in accordance with the provisions
of Article 63.
2. Such agencies thus brought into relationship with the United Nations are
hereinafter referred to as specialized agencies.


Article 58
The Organization shall make recommendations for the coordination of the policies
and activities of the specialized agencies.

Article 59
The Organization shall, where appropriate, initiate negotiations among the states
concerned for the creation of any new specialized agencies required for the
accomplishment of the purposes set forth in Article 55.

Article 60
Responsibility for the discharge of the functions of the Organization set forth in this
Chapter shall be vested in the General Assembly and, under the authority of the
General Assembly, in the Economic and Social Council, which shall have for this
purpose the powers set forth in Chapter X.

CHAPTER X
THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Composition
Article 61
1. The Economic and Social Council shall consist of fifty-four Members of the United
Nations elected by the General Assembly.
2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, eighteen members of the Economic and
Social Council shall be elected each year for a term of three years. A retiring
member shall be eligible for immediate re-election.

3. At the first election after the increase in the membership of the Economic and
Social Council from twenty-seven to fifty-four members, in addition to the members
elected in place of the nine members whose term of office expires at the end of that
year, twenty-seven additional members shall be elected. Of these twenty-seven
additional members, the term of office of nine members so elected shall expire at
the end of one year, and of nine other members at the end of two years, in
accordance with arrangements made by the General Assembly.

4. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall have one representative.

Functions and Powers
Article 62
1. The Economic and Social Council may make or initiate studies and reports with
respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related
matters and may make recommendations with respect to any such matters to the
General Assembly, to the Members of the United Nations, and to the specialized
agencies concerned.
2. It may make recommendations for the purpose of promoting respect for, and
observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all.

3. It may prepare draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly, with
respect to matters falling within its competence.

4. It may call, in accordance with the rules prescribed by the United Nations,
international conferences on matters falling within its competence.


Article 63
1. The Economic and Social Council may enter into agreements with any of the
agencies referred to in Article 57, defining the terms on which the agency
concerned shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations. Such
agreements shall be subject to approval by the General Assembly.
2. It may coordinate the activities of the specialized agencies through consultation
with and recommendations to such agencies and through recommendations to the
General Assembly and to the Members of the United Nations.


Article 64
1. The Economic and Social Council may take appropriate steps to obtain regular
reports from the specialized agencies. It may make arrangements with the
Members of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies to obtain reports
on the steps taken to give effect to its own recommendations and to
recommendations on matters falling within its competence made by the General
Assembly.
2. It may communicate its observations on these reports to the General Assembly.


Article 65
The Economic and Social Council may furnish information to the Security Council
and shall assist the Security Council upon its request.

Article 66
1. The Economic and Social Council shall perform such functions as fall within its
competence in connection with the carrying out of the recommendations of the
General Assembly.
2. It may, with the approval of the General Assembly, perform services at the
request of Members of the United Nations and at the request of specialized
agencies.

3. It shall perform such other functions as are specified elsewhere in the present
Charter or as may be assigned to it by the General Assembly.


Article 67
1. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall have one vote.
2. Decisions of the Economic and Social Council shall be made by a majority of the
members present and voting.


Procedure
Article 68
The Economic and Social Council shall set up commissions in economic and social
fields and for the promotion of human rights, and such other commissions as may
be required for the performance of its functions.

Article 69
The Economic and Social Council shall invite any Member of the United Nations to
participate, without vote, in its deliberations on any matter of particular concern to
that Member.

Article 70
The Economic and Social Council may make arrangements for representatives of
the specialized agencies to participate, without vote, in its deliberations and in
those of the commissions established by it, and for its representatives to
participate in the deliberations of the specialized agencies.

Article 71
The Economic and Social Council may make suitable arrangements for consultation
with non-governmental organizations which are concerned with matters within its
competence. Such arrangements may be made with international organizations
and, where appropriate, with national organizations after consultation with the
Member of the United Nations concerned.

Article 72
1. The Economic and Social Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including
the method of selecting its President.
2. The Economic and Social Council shall meet as required in accordance with its
rules, which shall include provision for the convening of meetings on the request of
a majority of its members.


CHAPTER XI
DECLARATION REGARDING NON-SELF-GOVERNING TERRITORIES
Article 73
Members of the United Nations which have or assume responsibilities for the
administration of territories whose peoples have not yet attained a full measure of
self-government recognize the principle that the interests of the inhabitants of
these territories are paramount, and accept as a sacred trust the obligation to
promote to the utmost, within the system of international peace and security
established by the present Charter, the well-being of the inhabitants of these
territories, and, to this end:
a. to ensure, with due respect for the culture of the peoples concerned, their
political, economic, social, and educational advancement, their just treatment, and
their protection against abuses;

b. to develop self-government, to take due account of the political aspirations of
the peoples, and to assist them in the progressive development of their free
political institutions, according to the particular circumstances of each territory and
its peoples and their varying stages of advancement;

c. to further international peace and security;

d. to promote constructive measures of development, to encourage research, and
to cooperate with one another and, when and where appropriate, with specialized
international bodies with a view to the practical achievement of the social,
economic, and scientific purposes set forth in this Article; and

e. to transmit regularly to the Secretary-General for information purposes, subject
to such limitation as security and constitutional considerations may require,
statistical and other information of a technical nature relating to economic, social,
and educational conditions in the territories for which they are respectively
responsible other than those territories to which Chapters XII and XIII apply.


Article 74
Members of the United Nations also agree that their policy in respect of the
territories to which this Chapter applies, no less than in respect of their
metropolitan areas, must be based on the general principle of good-neighborliness,
due account being taken of the interests and well-being of the rest of the world, in
social, economic, and commercial matters.

CHAPTER XII
INTERNATIONAL TRUSTEESHIP SYSTEM
Article 75
The United Nations shall establish under its authority an international trusteeship
system for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed
thereunder by subsequent individual agreements. These territories are hereinafter
referred to as trust territories.

Article 76
The basic objectives of the trusteeship system, in accordance with the Purposes of
the United Nations laid down in Article 1 of the present Charter, shall be:
a. to further international peace and security;

b. to promote the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the
inhabitants of the trust territories, and their progressive development towards
self-government or independence as may be appropriate to the particular
circumstances of each territory and its peoples and the freely expressed wishes of
the peoples concerned, and as may be provided by the terms of each trusteeship
agreement;

c. to encourage respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all
without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion, and to encourage
recognition of the interdependence of the peoples of the world; and

d. to ensure equal treatment in social, economic, and commercial matters for all
Members of the United Nations and their nationals and also equal treatment for the
latter in the administration of justice without prejudice to the attainment of the
foregoing objectives and subject to the provisions of Article 80.


Article 77
1. The trusteeship system shall apply to such territories in the following categories
as may be placed thereunder by means of trusteeship agreements:
a. territories now held under mandate;

b. territories which may be detached from enemy states as a result of the Second
World War, and

c. territories voluntarily placed under the system by states responsible for their
administration.

2. It will be a matter for subsequent agreement as to which territories in the
foregoing categories will be brought under the trusteeship system and upon what
terms.


Article 78
The trusteeship system shall not apply to territories which have become Members
of the United Nations, relationship among which shall be based on respect for the
principle of sovereign equality.

Article 79
The terms of trusteeship for each territory to be placed under the trusteeship
system, including any alteration or amendment, shall be agreed upon by the states
directly concerned, including the mandatory power in the case of territories held
under mandate by a Member of the United Nations, and shall be approved as
provided for in Articles 83 and 85.

Article 80
1. Except as may be agreed upon in individual trusteeship agreements, made under
Articles 77, 79, and 81, placing each territory under the trusteeship system, and
until such agreements have been concluded, nothing in this Chapter shall be
construed in or of itself to alter in any manner the rights whatsoever of any states
or any peoples or the terms of existing international instruments to which Members
of the United Nations may respectively be parties.
2. Paragraph 1 of this Article shall not be interpreted as giving grounds for delay or
postponement of the negotiation and conclusion of agreements for placing
mandated and other territories under the trusteeship system as provided for in
Article 77.


Article 81
The trusteeship agreement shall in each case include the terms under which the
trust territory will be administered and designate the authority which will exercise
the administration of the trust territory. Such authority, hereinafter called the
administering authority, may be one or more states or the Organization itself.

Article 82
There may be designated, in any trusteeship agreement, a strategic area or areas
which may include part or all of the trust territory to which the agreement applies,
without prejudice to any special agreement or agreements made under Article 43.

Article 83
1. All functions of the United Nations relating to strategic areas, including the
approval of the terms of the trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or
amendment, shall be exercised by the Security Council.
2. The basic objectives set forth in Article 76 shall be applicable to the people of
each strategic area.

3. The Security Council shall, subject to the provisions of the trusteeship
agreements and without prejudice to security considerations, avail itself of the
assistance of the Trusteeship Council to perform those functions of the United
Nations under the trusteeship system relating to political. economic, social, and
educational matters in the strategic areas.


Article 84
It shall be the duty of the administering authority to ensure that the trust territory
shall play its part in the maintenance of international peace and security. To this
end the administering authority may make use of volunteer forces, facilities, and
assistance from the trust territory in carrying out the obligations towards the
Security Council undertaken in this regard by the administering authority, as well as
for local defense and the maintenance of law and order within the trust territory.

Article 85
1. The functions of the United Nations with regard to trusteeship agreements for all
areas not designated as strategic, including the approval of the terms of the
trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amendment, shall be exercised by
the General Assembly.
2. The Trusteeship Council, operating under the authority of the General Assembly,
shall assist the General Assembly in carrying out these functions.


CHAPTER XIII
THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL
Composition
Article 86
1. The Trusteeship Council shall consist of the following Members of the United
Nations:
a. those Members administering trust territories;

b. such of those Members mentioned by name in Article 23 as are not administering
trust territories; and

c. as many other Members elected for three-year terms by the General Assembly
as may be necessary to ensure that the total number of members of the
Trusteeship Council is equally divided between those Members of the United
Nations which administer trust territories and those which do not.

2. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall designate one specially qualified
person to represent it therein.


Functions and Powers
Article 87
The General Assembly and, under its authority, the Trusteeship Council, in carrying
out their functions, may:
a. consider reports submitted by the administering authority;

b. accept petitions and examine them in consultation with the administering
authority;

c. provide for periodic visits to the respective trust territories at times agreed upon
with the administering authority; and

d. take these and other actions in conformity with the terms of the trusteeship
agreements.


Article 88
The Trusteeship Council shall formulate a questionnaire on the political, economic,
social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of each trust territory, and
the administering authority for each trust territory within the competence of the
General Assembly shall make an annual report to the General Assembly upon the
basis of such questionnaire.

Voting
Article 89
1. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall have one vote.
2. Decisions of the Trusteeship Council shall be made by a majority of the members
present and voting.


Procedure
Article 90
1. The Trusteeship Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the
method of selecting its President.
2. The Trusteeship Council shall meet as required in accordance with its rules, which
shall include provision for the convening of meetings on the request of a majority of
its members.


Article 91
The Trusteeship Council shall, when appropriate, avail itself of the assistance of the
Economic and Social Council and of the specialized agencies in regard to matters
with which they are respectively concerned.

CHAPTER XIV
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
Article 92
The International Court of Justice shall be the principal judicial organ of the United
Nations. It shall function in accordance with the annexed Statute which is based
upon the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice and forms an
integral part of the present Charter.

Article 93
1. All Members of the United Nations are ipso facto parties to the Statute of the
International Court of Justice.
2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations may become a party to the
Statute of the International Court of Justice on conditions to be determined in each
case by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.


Article 94
1. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to comply with the decision of the
International Court of Justice in any case to which it is a party.
2. If any party to a case fails to perform the obligations incumbent upon it under a
judgment rendered by the Court, the other party may have recourse to the Security
Council, which may, if it deems necessary, make recommendations or decide upon
measures to be taken to give effect to the judgment.

Article 95
Nothing in the present Charter shall prevent Members of the United Nations from
entrusting the solution of their differences to other tribunals by virtue of
agreements already in existence or which may be concluded in the future.

Article 96
1. The General Assembly or the Security Council may request the International
Court of Justice to give an advisory opinion on any legal question.
2. Other organs of the United Nations and specialized agencies, which may at any
time be so authorized by the General Assembly, may also request advisory opinions
of the Court on legal questions arising within the scope of their activities.


CHAPTER XV
THE SECRETARIAT
Article 97
The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary-General and such staff as the
Organization may require. The Secretary-General shall be appointed by the General
Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. He shall be the chief
administrative officer of the Organization.

Article 98
The Secretary-General shall act in that capacity in all meetings of the General
Assembly, of the Security Council, of the Economic and Social Council, and of the
Trusteeship Council, and shall perform such other functions as are entrusted to him
by these organs. The Secretary-General shall make an annual report to the General
Assembly on the work of the Organization.

Article 99
The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any
matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace
and security.

Article 100
1. In the performance of their duties the Secretary-General and the staff shall not
seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other authority
external to the Organization. They shall refrain from any action which might reflect
on their position as international officials responsible only to the Organization.
2. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to respect the exclusively
international character of the responsibilities of the Secretary-General and the staff
and not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their responsibilities.


Article 101
1. The staff shall be appointed by the Secretary-General under regulations
established by the General Assembly.
2. Appropriate staffs shall be permanently assigned to the Economic and Social
Council, the Trusteeship Council, and, as required, to other organs of the United
Nations. These staffs shall form a part of the Secretariat.

3. The paramount consideration in the employment of the staff and in the
determination of the conditions of service shall be the necessity of securing the
highest standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity. Due regard shall be paid
to the importance of recruiting the staff on as wide a geographical basis as
possible.


CHAPTER XVI
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Article 102
1. Every treaty and every international agreement entered into by any Member of
the United Nations after the present Charter comes into force shall as soon as
possible be registered with the Secretariat and published by it.
2. No party to any such treaty or international agreement which has not been
registered in accordance with the provisions of paragraph I of this Article may
invoke that treaty or agreement before any organ of the United Nations.


Article 103
In the event of a conflict between the obligations of the Members of the United
Nations under the present Charter and their obligations under any other
international agreement, their obligations under the present Charter shall prevail.

Article 104
The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of its Members such legal
capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfillment of
its purposes.

Article 105
1. The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of its Members such
privileges and immunities as are necessary for the fulfillment of its purposes.
2. Representatives of the Members of the United Nations and officials of the
Organization shall similarly enjoy such privileges and immunities as are necessary
for the independent exercise of their functions in connection with the Organization.

3. The General Assembly may make recommendations with a view to determining
the details of the application of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article or may propose
conventions to the Members of the United Nations for this purpose.


CHAPTER XVII
TRANSITIONAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS
Article 106
Pending the coming into force of such special agreements referred to in Article 43
as in the opinion of the Security Council enable it to begin the exercise of its
responsibilities under Article 42, the parties to the Four-Nation Declaration, signed
at Moscow October 30, 1943, and France, shall, in accordance with the provisions of
paragraph 5 of that Declaration, consult with one another and as occasion requires
with other Members of the United Nations with a view to such joint action on behalf
of the Organization as may be necessary for the purpose of maintaining
international peace and security.

Article 107
Nothing in the present Charter shall invalidate or preclude action, in relation to any
state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory to
the present Charter, taken or authorized as a result of that war by the Governments
having responsibility for such action.

CHAPTER XVIII
AMENDMENTS
Article 108
Amendments to the present Charter shall come into force for all Members of the
United Nations when they have been adopted by a vote of two thirds of the
members of the General Assembly and ratified in accordance with their respective
constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations,
including all the permanent members of the Security Council.

Article 109
1. A General Conference of the Members of the United Nations for the purpose of
reviewing the present Charter may be held at a date and place to be fixed by a
two-thirds vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any
seven members of the Security Council. Each Member of the United Nations shall
have one vote in the conference.
2. Any alteration of the present Charter recommended by a two-thirds vote of the
conference shall take effect when ratified in accordance with their respective
constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations
including all the permanent members of the Security Council.

3. If such a conference has not been held before the tenth annual session of the
General Assembly following the coming into force of the present Charter, the
proposal to call such a conference shall be placed on the agenda of that session of
the General Assembly, and the conference shall be held if so decided by a majority
vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any seven members
of the Security Council.


CHAPTER XIX
RATIFICATION AND SIGNATURE
Article 110
1. The present Charter shall be ratified by the signatory states in accordance with
their respective constitutional processes.
2. The ratifications shall be deposited with the Government of the United States of
America, which shall notify all the signatory states of each deposit as well as the
Secretary-General of the Organization when he has been appointed.

3. The present Charter shall come into force upon the deposit of ratifications by the
Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America,
and by a majority of the other signatory states. A protocol of the ratifications
deposited shall thereupon be drawn up by the Government of the United States of
America which shall communicate copies thereof to all the signatory states.

4. The states signatory to the present Charter which ratify it after it has come into
force will become original Members of the United Nations on the date of the deposit
of their respective ratifications.

Article 111
The present Charter, of which the Chinese, French, Russian, English, and Spanish
texts are equally authentic, shall remain deposited in the archives of the
Government of the United States of America. Duly certified copies thereof shall be
transmitted by that Government to the Governments of the other signatory states.
IN FAITH WHEREOF the representatives of the Governments of the United Nations
have signed the present Charter.

DONE at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June, one thousand nine
hundred and forty-five.



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Created on November 22, 1994 / Last edited on January 25, 1997


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